Saturday, March 28, 2020

Fritz Haber - Chemist And Patriot Essays - Industrial Gases

Fritz Haber - Chemist and Patriot The name Fritz Haber has long been associated with the well-known process of synthesizing ammonia from its elements. While primarily known for developing a process which ultimately relieved the world of dependence on Chilean ammonia, this twentieth century Nobel prize winner was also involved in the varying fortunes of Germany in World War I and in the rise to power of the Nazi regime. Haber was born on December 9, 1868 in Prussia. He was the son of a prosperous German chemical merchant and worked for his father after being educated in Berlin, Heidelberg, and Zurich. After a short time, Haber left his father's business and took up research in organic chemistry at the University of Jena. The university's strictly orthodox methods soon led him to leave for a junior teaching position at the Technische Hochschule of Karlsruhe. At the age of 25, Haber immediately threw himself, with tremendous energy, into teaching and research in physical chemistry, a subject in which he was essentially self-taught. Quickly he gained respect and recognition for his research in electrochemistry and thermodynamics. He also authored several books arising from his research. During the first decade of the twentieth century, the world-wide demand for nitrogen based fertilizers exceeded the existing supply. The largest source of the chemicals necessary for fertilizer production was found in a huge guano deposit (essentially sea bird droppings) that was 220 miles in length and five feet thick, located along the coast of Chile. Scientists had long desired to solve the problem of the world's dependence on this fast disappearing natural source of ammonia and nitrogenous compounds. It was Haber, along with Carl Bosch, who finally solved this problem. Haber invented a large-scale catalytic synthesis of ammonia from elemental hydrogen and nitrogen gas, reactants which are abundant and inexpensive. By using high temperature (around 500oCelsius), high pressure (approximately 3000 psi), and an iron catalyst, Haber could force relatively unreactive gaseous nitrogen and hydrogen to combine into ammonia. This furnished the essential precursor for many important substances, particularly fertilizers and explosives used in mining and warfare. Although ammonia and its exploitation ultimately have the ability both to sustain life and destroy it, Haber did not have either reason specifically in mind when performing his research. His dedication to science and the search for solutions to a chemical problem inspired his work. He said later of his work: "The interest of a wider circle has its source in the recognition that ammonia synthesis on a large scale represents a useful...way to satisfy an economic need. This practical usefulness was not the preconceived goal of my experiments. I was not in doubt that my laboratory work could furnish no more than a scientific statement of the foundations and a knowledge of the experimental equipment, and that much had to be added to this result in order to attain economic success on an industrial scale." In 1911, Haber was appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry in Berlin. This new research facility was to become more famous than the school he had built up at Karlsruhe. With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Haber was in charge of forming a center for cross-disciplinary research in chemistry and physics and as such, he immediately placed himself and his laboratory at the service of the German government. He became a behind-the-scenes consultant on industrial mobilization. During the war, Haber, the embodiment of Prussian pride, unquestionably and uncritically accepted the State's wisdom. He served his beloved country in many ways. For example, because Germany was essentially landlocked for the duration of the war, the supply of necessary materials was a serious problem. Haber's institute worked on numerous wartime concerns including the problem of keeping motors running. He showed that xylene and the solvent naptha were good substitutes for toluene as an antifreeze in benzene motor fuel. Since xylene and naptha were available in Germany and toluene was not, Haber's contributions helped to keep German machinery running and aided in sustaining their war effort for four years. Haber also served his country in the most basic sense with his process of ammonia synthesis. Not only was ammonia used as a

Saturday, March 7, 2020

GMAT Sample Questions, Answers and Explanations

GMAT Sample Questions, Answers and Explanations The GMAT is a crucial step in the business school application process.  Admissions committees use applicants  GMAT scores to assess their ability to succeed in a graduate-level program. The best way to prepare for the GMAT is to complete sample questions that test the same skills as the actual exam. The samples listed below resemble GMAT questions in structure, format, and skills tested. After completing all of the sample questions, review the answers and explanations at the end of this article. Integrated Reasoning Sample Questions The Integrated Reasoning section  contains 12 questions in four different categories: Multi-Source Reasoning, Graphical Interpretation, Two-Part Analysis and Table Analysis. You will have 30 minutes to complete this section of the GMAT. Question #1 Commodity Production: World Share (%) Production: World Rank Exports: World Share (%) Exports: World Rank Pork 8 4 20 4 Beans 13 3 24 2 Beef 32 2 22 3 Corn 47 1 34 1 Evaluate the table shown above, which displays data about American agricultural products. Answer YES to the following statement if the information in the table makes the statement true. Otherwise, answer NO. No country, including America, produces more than one-half of the worlds corn. Question #2 ABC Boats is producing a new speedboat called the Lake Skipper. The Lake Skippers fuel economy is R miles per gallon (R(m/G)) when it is driving a constant speed of S miles per hour (S(m/h)). Select the expression that represents the number of gallons of fuel that the Lake Skipper will use when driving at a constant speed (S) for 1 hour. Your answer should be in terms of the variables R and S. Select the expression that represents the number of gallons of fuel that the Lake Skipper will use when driving at a constant speed (S) for 60 miles. Your answer should be in terms of the variables R and S. You should make two selections total (one in each empty column). Gallons of Fuel in 1 Hour Gallons of Fuel in 60 Miles Expression S/R R/S S/60 R/60 60/S 60/R    Quantitative Reasoning Sample Questions The Quantitative Reasoning section  contains 31 questions in two categories: Data Sufficiency and Problem Solving. You have 62 minutes to complete this section of the GMAT. Question #1 If a b, c d, b c and e b, which of the following statements must be true?   I. a e  II. e d  III. a c (A) I only   (B) II only (C) III only (D) II and III   (E) I and III Question #2 On a 3-day trip to Italy, 4 adults ate $60 worth of spaghetti. How much would it cost for 7 adults to eat spaghetti on a 5-day trip to Italy if they ate the same spaghetti at the same cost per person per day? (A) $175 (B) $100 (C) $75 (D) $180 (E) $200 Verbal Reasoning Sample Questions The Verbal Reasoning section contains 36 questions in three categories: Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning and Sentence Correction. You will have 65 minutes to complete this section of the GMAT. Question #1 According to a recent study, the amount of work people are tasked with  rank as one of the high causes of workplace stress for American adults. (A) rank as one of the high causes of workplace stress (B) ranks as one of the more high causes of workplace stress (C) rank as one of the leading causes of workplace stress (D) ranks as one of the leading causes of workplace stress (E) rank as one of the higher causes of workplace stress Question #2 The cost of purchasing raw materials from Company A is fifteen percent less than the cost of purchasing raw materials from Company B. Even after taxes and transportation fees are added, it is still cheaper to purchase raw materials from Company A and have them transported than to purchase raw materials from Company B. Which of the following assertions is supported by the above statement? (A) Labor costs at Company A are fifteen percent lesson that labor costs at Company B. (B) The taxes on raw materials from Company A are more than fifteen percent of the cost of purchasing raw materials from Company B. (C) Company B inflates their prices to be more competitive than Company A. (D) It takes less time for Company A to mine raw materials. (E) The cost of transporting raw materials from Company A is less than fifteen percent of the cost of purchasing raw materials from Company B. Analytical Writing Sample Questions This section does not contain questions like the other three sections. Instead, you will be presented with a written argument. Your job is to critically analyze the validity of the argument and then write an analysis of the argument. The analysis should be an assessment of the reasoning used in the argument; you do not need to express your personal opinions. You have 30 minutes to complete the Analytical Writing section. Question #1 Many experts agree that reading can reduce stress and ease tension in muscles. Recently, two new libraries opened in the tri-county area. Consequently, the hospitals in the area should see a reduction in patients seeking treatment for heart attacks and strokes. To ensure that Lavender Hospital is not overstaffed, we should immediately reduce the number of emergency nurses at the hospital and allocate payroll savings to the radiology department, which desperately needs funds for new equipment. Write a critique of the above argument within 30 minutes. Question #2 Lick It Up Ice Cream began advertising in the local newspaper last month and saw its business increase by 15 percent over previous months totals. This rise in sales proves that newspaper advertising still works as well as it used to and can be used to make any food service company more profitable. Write a critique of the above argument within 30 minutes. Integrated Reasoning Answers and Explanations #1 Answer: Yes. This answer can be obtained by analyzing the table. Look at the Production: World Share (%) column for Corn and the Production: World Rank column for Corn. America is ranked first in corn production in the world and only produces 47% of the world share of corn. Therefore, it is true that no country, including America, produces more than one-half of the worlds corn. #2 Answer: S/R and 60/R. When Sspeed and Rmiles per gallon, S/R represents the number of gallons of fuel the Lake Skipper will use in one hour of drive time at constant speed. You would need to divide S by R to find out how much fuel would be used in one hour. When Rmiles per gallon and 60 represents the number of miles, 60/R represents the number of gallons of fuel that the Lake Skipper will use when driving at a constant speed (S) for 60 miles. You would need to divide 60 by R to find out how much fuel would be required for a 60 mile drive. Quantitative Answers and Explanations #1 Answer: D. It is true to say that e is greater than d and that a is greater than c. However, you cannot say that a is greater than e. Although we know that e is greater than b and that a is greater than b, there is no evidence that a is greater than e. #2 Answer: A. The answer is $175. To get to this number, you need to start by determining how much spaghetti costs per person per day. Divide 60 by 4 to get 15. This is the cost of spaghetti per day. Then, divide 15 by 3 to get 5. This is the cost of spaghetti per person per day. Then you switch from division to multiplication to get the cost for the second trip. Multiply 5 (the number of days on the trip) by 5 (the number of people on the trip) to get 25. Then, multiply 25 (the cost of food for five days) by 7 (the number of people) to get 175. It would cost $175 for 7 adults to eat spaghetti on a 5-day trip to Italy. Verbal Sample Answers and Explanations #1 Answer: D. The correct answer is ranks as one of the leading causes of workplace stress. This is the option that creates the most effective sentence without awkwardness or grammatical error. The verb ranks agrees with the subject of this sentence (amount of work). The word leading is also a better fit idiomatically than high and makes the sentence less awkward. #2 Answer: D. The cost of transporting raw materials from Company A is less than fifteen percent of the cost of purchasing raw materials from Company B. This is the only answer option supported by the statement. The statement does not mention labor costs, price inflation, or the amount of time to mine raw materials. The statement also clearly indicates that even with taxes and transportation fees, it is still costs LESS to purchase raw materials from Company A than Company B. Analytical Writing Answers and Explanations #1 and #2 Answer: There is no single correct answer or critique for either argument. However, each critique should 1.) restate a brief summary of the argument; 2.) analyze the use of reasoning and evidence in the argument; 3.) identify potential counterarguments, alternative explanations or questionable assumptions; and 4.) identify evidence that could have been used to strengthen the argument; 5.) provide a conclusion that sums up your critique. Check over what you have written to see if you have accomplished all five of these goals.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Office Art Memorandum Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Office Art Memorandum - Research Paper Example In addition to these impressionist works there are a number of seminal post-impressionist works. One major post-impressionist work is Henri Rousseau's 'Centennial of Independence'. Another significnat work is Vincent Van Gogh's 'Breton Women and Children.' The final post-impressionist work is Georges-Pierre Seurat's 'Evening, Honfleur.' 2. Van Gogh's 'the Night Cafe' features a cafe ostensibly at night. In the center of the cafe is an old type of pool table with a patron hovering near it. There are chains that surround the table. There are a number of lights in the room that emanate an orange and red-like color. The walls are depicted in a bright red and what appears to be a roof in bright green. Monet's 'Impression, Sunrise' is a slightly abstract depiction of a sunrise on a lake. The image implements lights blues and oranges to depict the sunrise. This sunrise blends seamlessly into the lake. The lake features an individual in a boat, with light signs of waves. Pissarro's 'Pont Boi eldieu in Rouen, Rainy Weather' features a river and a bridge. Individuals are crossing the brdige and and steam is emanating from a steamboat on the bridge. Henri Rousseau's 'Centennial of Independence' depicts a party-like atmosphere with individuals dancing in a celebratory way. Vincent Van Gogh's 'Breton Women and Children' depicts a number of nuns congregating and speaking together. The nuns are created in odd and oblong ways. Georges-Pierre Seurat's 'Evening, Honfleur' depicts a coast with a beach house nearby. 3. Van Gogh's 'The Night Cafe' is a significant work of art for a variety of reasons. Perhaps the most prominent reason that this work is considered significant is because of its use of vibrant colors. While obviously color were a prominent aspect of 19th century impressionism, the bright colors and technique implemented in this work foresee the future advent of expressionism (Gowing 2005, p. 201) Monet's 'Impression, Sunrise is significant for a variety of reasons. Per haps most prominently is the recognition that this image, despite using experimental techniques, is able to achieve a heightened realism; in this way the design elements are structured to reach the human visual cortex on a level that is not possible with more traditional painting techniques (Gowing 2005, p. 67). Pissarro's 'Pont Boieldieu in Rouen, Rainy Weather' is a significant work of art as it depicts the industrialization in the surrounding region from a fresh perspective (Gowing 2005, p. 93). Rousseau's 'Centennial of Independence' is a seminal work as it implemented cut and paste techniques that would later evolve in animation and Pop art methods in the 20th century (Rewald 1978, p. 34). Vincent Van Gogh's 'Breton Women and Children' is significant as it features a significant change in Van Gogh's style from the impressionist form, to a more post-impressionist style. Georges-Pierre Seurat's 'Evening, Honfleur' is significant as it implements the pointillist method of construc tion (Rewald 1978, p. 55). 4. This piece of art fits the corporate image because it is a highly contemplative piece. The table in the center of the room is indicative of a board room table, with the individual hovering nearby indicative of an employee considering the next project to take on. 'Impression, Sunrise' fits into the main spectrum of the organization as it depicts on early morning scene in a non-obtrusive way. In this way the painting could be featured in a morning break room or meeting room. Pissarro's 'Pont

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Caring in a technological world Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Caring in a technological world - Assignment Example Accurate documentation and integration of medical treatments and confidentiality is a pre requisite for the nursing staff as it endeavors to promote effective communication. Informatics plays a major role in communication in health care today. Use of cell phones and internet as tools for communication between physicians and patients is useful. It makes the patients to make informed decisions and focus on questions that they seek to ask their physicians because they provide written texts. They are also efficient because they provide a mode of communication though both parties may not be present at the same time (Ball, 2000). Research in the last decade showed that nearly 100,000 people die annually in the U.S.A due to medical errors (Ball, 2000). The introduction of medical informatics has led to the steep decline of these numbers. The technology can be used in diagnoses and treatments of patients. The invention of the COSTAR (Computer Stored Ambulatory Record) shows improvement in cases of misdiagnosis as this application software has an electronic patient that reminds clinicians and physicians about the guidelines of medical practice (Ball, 2000). There are also computerized programs that assist the physicians on the line of proper antibiotics to be prescribed. Processing prescriptions through this system ensure that the possibility of errors is reduced by over 45% (Ball, 2000). Managing knowledge involves proper dissemination of intrinsic and valued information after its acquisition. This information can be patient specific or evidence based. Examples of such information include electronic medical records and administrative (Ball, 2000). The ability to put into use the knowledge derived from informatics is the determinant of success of these systems. Health care information should be managed to promote confidentiality and the integrity of such data. These data should only be accessible to the appropriate individuals.

Monday, January 27, 2020

The Hotel And Tourism Tourism Law Tourism Essay

The Hotel And Tourism Tourism Law Tourism Essay In problems with the Environmental Issues or Laws, with the cooperation of our tourism they develop awareness, concern and knowledge of the environment and its different importance and other things. Those are different laws that have rule in Philippine tourism, including or even the different government office is involved too. It will also provide current situation that have in the tourism, travel and making hospitality which may be analyzed, interpreted and doing what can do on laws that have. The Environment laws protect our natural resources by controlling businesses that have the possible cause to them. Due to the matter of these laws, the Environmental Protection was formed whose main duty that must have done is to control and decrease pollution in finding out some materials that could cause harm, to see that companies that may cause environmental injury, they sets right of practice to lessen environmental effect and to carried punishments for those who did not follow environmen tal rules. Therefore, for any industry or in the hotel and tourism, it is helpful to be well known with the matter that given by our environmental laws, and responsible for law that government given, and the kinds of different way and some business through which those environmental laws are need to implement. Tourism or the Hotel Management can have different effects on a given area such as economical, social, environmental etc.The most important  economic  effect that tourism has is that it provides more  employment  for the people in that area and hence in a way increases their  standard  of living. In fact certain economies primarily run on tourism.As a result it also helps the region as a whole to develop and as a result the governing bodies can utilize the funds to promote the  destination  and make it more attractive for tourists. Tourism is now one of the worlds largest industries and one of its fastest that is develop in our country. For many countries tourism is seen as a main used for wide development, as it alert to the new different economic performance or activities that have in the government. Tourism may have a positive economic effect on the balance of payments, on employment, on gross income and production, but it may also have negative effects, particularly on the environment. Unexpected things in developing tourism can result in such a worse of the environment that tourist growth can be demanded. Being the major source of tourist product of the government, therefore it should be protected in order to have something development of tourism and doing good for the country in following years. In additional of business activities worldwide and as a result of more high knowedge , there has been increasing learn to everyone and concern with the injury to human health and environmental damage that cause by the different business activities .These problems is need for business and industry to be controls at all levels, and for the main that could be hardly sustain development to be established in international and national environmental laws to make sure that foreign investment and other business activities lead to development that is sustainable in environment . In this way, the Hotel and Tourism Management play an important role in development . If the government takes the recommended actions for development and promotion it will establish market targets that specify the number and types of tourists that the country will be able to attract. To make sure that national and local tourism development agreements stress a policy of sustainable tourism development. Incentives that given by the government can encourage many corporations involved in the tourism business to do more their activities to have more recently having a large countries. Thinking of environmental problems it will assist the manager in helping such individual responsibility for and liability to environmental damage, in integrating environmental affairs with operations, and in developing policies and professionals to manage environmental issues. Tour operators have a great deal of influence on the destinations, activities and overall experience of tourists. Therefore its hard that they have understand the idea of ecotourism and the conservation requirements of protected areas that have rules to follow. They need to be fully aware that the ecotourism product they are trying to promote is easily broken and must be carefully preserved. The tourism industry is also an important partner since it is a vital source of information about need trends, promotion and marketing. It would bring attention to the present and future environmental issues facing the health of our planet and the people it supports. And our responsibility to protect the health and well-being of that ecosystem start to beginning of a day on the number of aware that surrounds in the world. Philippine laws rule the rights and obligations of which support in the hospitality and tourism industry. It provides for their rights, liabilities and even benefits as order by law. It affects the globalization of the tourism industry, also in opportunity to begun addition or widely into the international market or in target grow internationally. Realize the level of technology and technological capabilities within the host country in order to assess the advantages or disadvantages the hotel may face. Human activities are sources of environmental impacts. Since a sustainable environment must be achieved, individuals should make efforts towards developing and protecting the environment in learning of good methods, techniques, and policies. Human activities are sources of environmental impacts. Since a sustainable environment must be achieved, every person should make efforts towards developing and protecting the environment by learning or doing of good methods, techniques, and policies. Support different developing countries efforts to implement different things that could have in development the practices and protect the global environment. To make sure that the goal is in full support of environmental laws. Overall, consideration of the environment and stick to environmental laws and regulations have become important in the day-to-day behavior of business or in the Hotel and Tourism Management all in the Philippines or throughout the world. Working together by the businesses, workers, environmentalists, and government officials is to find economically into our environment. In helping of our government rules as well our tourism department, we can do better for the everyones life. Inspite of rising the demands of needs of everyone, of everyone come to show full support to the strong campaign for the different environmental laws or regulations, with the biggest role of our tourism in advocating and promote or not violating any rules to anyone who is responsible, we should have all the confident to win this one..    With the skills or knowledge of all in the tourism management and see how that connects and from there start volunteering for programs and tell people about it. But before that first learn how blessed we are and how rich our natural resources are, you would be inspired and motivated to take better care of it. From there, you start with yourself not only our government who pay attention on it. Sources http://www.egerton.ac.ke/index.php/bsc-ecoahos.html http://bio427.blogspot.com/2010/10/environmental-laws-of-philippines.html-. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_Philippine_tourism_laws#ixzz2718t1XVm

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Three West African Kingdoms

To what extent did geography determine the location of the three West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali and Songhai? Ghana, Mali and Songhai were the three largest Kingdoms to exist in the history of West Africa. They were located in West Africa during the 11th, 14th and 15th century. West Africa is the region in the western part of the African continent, it lies approximately 15 ° north of the equator. Geography is the study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere.These three prominent western african kingdoms flourished due to strategically located trade routes, abundance of natural resources and diverse types of land. These three factors primarily determined the location of the kingdoms and sustained and supported their societies. The existing trade routes greatly influenced the location of where the empires were built and expanded upon. One of the most commonly used and oldest trade routes in the world is the Trans Sahara route which crosses the Sahara desert and leads to the West African coast.As a result to the location of this trade route all three empires were located south of the desert to be the first civilization traders would reach after their journey. Map A (Trade Routes in Western Africa at the time of the Mali Kingdom) shows the location of the kingdoms in relation to the different trade routes coming from and to western Africa. This gave the kingdoms the direct link to different cultures from Europe, Asia and India whom all frequented this path. As the kingdoms prolonged more routes were opened up, leading northeast across the Sahara for example.As well as this, the positioning of trade routes allowed the empires to stabilize a flourishing economy with little risk of failure. The kingdoms proximity to the routes gave the population exactly what they wanted from all over the world. Merchants coming from Europe, Asia and India brought a variety of goods to Africa, including ceramics, silk, spices, camels and slaves. These items co uld be traded for a range of natural resources the West African region was enriched with. Not only could items be traded, but the kingdoms were able to enforce taxes on all trades within the area.The Ghanaian King imposed taxes on all people passing through the kingdom; in return he provided soldiers who protected the trade routes from unwanted intruders. The king also created the system of silent barter. An issue faced by people who traded with Ghana was the language barrier. To eliminate the use of language in trade, silent barter was used to trade goods. The location of the kingdoms in relation to the trade routes, the use of taxation and the system of silent bartering made trade with West African Kingdoms safe and efficient, helping them become prime trading centers.The western African region was enriched with large quantities of different natural resources, which not only allowed trade and economic success but also helped prosper a sustainable civilization. As shown in Map B (M ineral Resources of W. Africa), the area occupied by the kingdoms was filled with natural resources such as gold and iron. Also shown on Map B, the areas to the north and south of the kingdoms were rich in common salt, iron, titanium, copper, diamonds and zinc.Even though the region of the kingdom might have not been the location with the largest quantities of resources, their territories were in the middle of the northern and southern trade in Africa, allowing them to be in control of all internal African trade. The access to valuable resources subsequently allowed the economy to depend largely on trade and due to its economic success earned the title â€Å"Gold Coast†. Not only were natural resources used for trade, however they were also used to advance machinery and tools in order to sustain and develop the empires.Metals such as iron and copper were used to create tools (Image of iron tools found in western Africa on right), weapons and to increase efficiency of work. Ir on smelting and manufacture was not only prominent in West Africa but also among the Nok culture of Nigeria and various other parts of the continent. The productions of iron tools let agriculture, hunting and warfare progress and improve, and soon became a fundamental part of life. In conclusion, the diversity of natural resources found in the area helped flourish the economy and extend the technology and knowledge of the population in the kingdoms.The West African regions was not only a center of trade and home to many natural resources but also possessed a number of different types of land which were successfully used to increase agriculture and make a self-dependent society. As indicated on Map C (Land use in West Africa), this region had a combination of permanent crops, arable, grazing and forest land. Native plants such as pearl millet, sorghum and cowpeas were grown in large quantities to feed the majority of the population. This permitted the population to adapt to farming a nd agriculture using the land for different crops.In addition, West Africa is also coastal region bordering the Atlantic Ocean as shown on Map D. This gave the advantage of having fertile soil near the coast all year round. The European influence and steady trade greatly encouraged farming and consequently led the region to become extremely agriculturally productive as merchants would be looking for places to stock up on food and supplies whilst passing through the trade routes. Alongside this, the introduction of iron farming tools enhanced the production of crops immensely.This contributed to the many ways of how the African kingdoms became successful and self-sufficient civilization. After close examination, it can be concluded that a efficiently managed system of trade routes (including taxation and silent barter), diverse use of the different types of land (including arable, grazing and forest land) and an abundance of natural resources which were used to the kingdoms’ a dvantages, Ghana, Mali and Songhai were able to sustain themselves by using the geographic factors available. Word count: 1,044

Saturday, January 11, 2020

XYZ Construction Case Study

The organization was transformed when improved performance was achieved through the leadership from the new Managing Director. The operation, culture and structure of the organization were transformed to achieve the goals of the new Managing Director. The construction industry within which EX. Construction operates in, is highly competitive, aggressive and at times, hostile. Conflict between contractors and subcontractors occurs frequently, often requiring litigation to resolve the disputes. The hostile environment was mirrored by the relationships within the organization under the former Managing Director.There are four sections in the report; the first section will address the extent to which EX. Construction adopted the culture-excellence approach during their transformation process. This is following by the evaluation of the resistance experienced during the transformation and the use of a new management style by the incoming Managing Director. The last section presents examples of transformation in a South African context. 1 Extent to which EX. adopted the Culture – Excellence approach The approach to change management is identifying and managing processes developed to make organizations more competitive and improve performance.Change Management processes are focused on internal processes within an organization, and they provide solutions to assist management achieve their commitment to change and improve productivity with the least resistance (Strop, 2005). There are many approaches to change management developed however the report will utilize the three approaches described by Burners, 2009. 1. 1 The three change approaches There are three approaches that have dominated the Western managerial thinking since the asses namely; the Culture – Excellence approach, the JapaneseManagement approach and the Organizational Learning approach (Burners, 2009, p. 99). The approaches are briefly described below: Culture – Excellence Approach There is a vast amount of literature presented on this approach however; the key contributors to the culture-excellence approach are Peters and Waterman, Canter and Handy. The crucial components from each contributor are briefly highlighted. Peters and Waterman They developed eight significant attributes that organizations need to demonstrate if they are to achieve excellence, namely (Burners, 2009, p. 102): A bias for action Closeness to the customerAutonomy and entrepreneurship Productivity through people Hands-on, value driven Stick to the knitting Simple form, lean staff Simultaneous loose-tight approach Canter Rosetta Moss Canter developed the post-entrepreneurial model, which highlights how organizations in future, should operate. Her model describes three strategies that post-entrepreneurial organizations must pursue: Restructuring to find synergies Opening boundaries to form strategic alliance Creating ventures from within: encouraging innovation and entrepreneurship Handy Handy i s a British theorist who contributed to the emergence of new organizational arms.Handy identified three generic types of organizations. He argued the following organizational forms will dominate in future: Shamrock Federal Triple I (Intelligence, Information and Ideas = Added Value) Japanese Management Approach The Japanese management approach was captured by Ouch', McKenna, Pang and Oliver and many other contributors. The contributions made by the above theorists are briefly described below. Couch William Couch believes that organizational success stems from the following (burns, IPPP): The involvement and commitment of the entire workforce.A set of internally consistent norms, practices and behaviors based on trust and strong personal ties between the individual and the organization, particularly their immediate work group. Practices such as lifetime employment, slow evaluation and promotion and collective decision-making. The belief that workers want to build cooperative and clos e working relationships. 5 McKenna McKenna believes that the central elements to organizational success are (Burners, 2009, p. 135): Lifetime employment, The seniority principle with regard to pay and promotion, Enterprise unionism Pang and OliverPang and Oliver agreed with McKenna however believe that the additional elements to organizational success are (Burners, 2009, p. 135) : Training and education. Company-based welfare schemes. Quality Circles. Manufacturing methods such as Just-in-Time production. Organizational Learning Approach Organizational learning â€Å"describes attempts by organizations to become learning organizations by promoting learning in a conscious, systematic and synergistic fashion that involves everyone in the organization† (Burners, 2009, p. 146).Sense developed 5 interrelated disciplines that organizations require to encourage and template learning and success. The 5 disciplines are listed below (Burners, 2009, p. 148): Personal mastery – in dividual growth and learning. Mental models – deeply ingrained assumptions that affect the way individuals think about people, situations and organizations. Shared visions – the development of a common view of the organization's future. Team learning – the shift from individual learning to collective learning. Systems thinking – the ‘Fifth Discipline' that links the others together and which, he argues is missing in most organizations. Cummins and Worldly in 2001, identified three levels of learning, designed to assist organization to move from an adaptive to transformation learning level. The identified three levels are listed below (Burners, 2009, p. 149): Level I Level II – Single loop learning – Double loop learning Level Ill – Triple loop learning 1. 2 Adoption of the Culture – Excellence Approach The following section evaluates the extent to which EX. Construction has adopted the culture-excellence approach in its o rganizational transformation process.The impact of each initiative has been discussed separately as these are significant events within the process. Customer care programmer The new Managing Director identified an opportunity to improve the organization's performance by improving services delivered to customers. The construction industry is hostile and aggressive, however through a customer case programmer, the Managing Director believed that positive relationships can be built which would benefit both the organization and customers.Based on the attributes developed by Peters and Waterman listed above, the organization's customer care programmer will allow them to be closer to the customer. The programmer was initiated with a few key managers and a few key customers. The programmer is a critical part of the transformation of EX. Construction's culture and the way they do business. The programmer meant that the initiating key managers had to develop and display skills of effective co mmunication and build relationships with key customers.The initiative develops managers by ensuring they adopt a more hands-on approach in the organization, share experiences and pass on knowledge and information. The customer case programmer is a clear indication of how EX. Construction has adopted the culture-excellence approach in its organization. Awaken Initiative The Japanese developed a business philosophy, awaken, which translates to change for the better (Investigated, 2014). This business philosophy focuses on the continuous approach involving all employees of the organization.This initiative is based on all three of the approaches and it clearly originates from Japanese management approach. This approach and the implementation of the small-scale awaken initiative at EX. Construction will enable organization learning to take place along with a culture change of employees and managers working together. The new Managing Director communicated his commitment to the initiative, Hereford all employees are collectively working together to ensure the success of the initiative..The culture change brought about by the initiative, develops managers' confidence to delegate work without feeling threatened by subordinates. This leads to staff being empowered by a higher sense of responsibility while developing skills. Partner initiatives in the Industry The previously hostile construction environment is changing to the extent that contractors and subcontractors are attempting to build relationships and partnerships rather resolve disputes through litigation. The new Managing Director however, identified a shortcoming in the organization that required attention in order to build successful external relationships.Hiss view was that relationships that needed to be built externally could not be achieved if internal relationships and communication skills were not developed. Internal relationships are required to ensure that managers and employees are striving to achiev e the same goals with similar techniques. Successful relationships and strategic alliances with contractors and sub-contractors will result in increased organizational performance. This approach encourages new ventures from within the organization through an innovative working environment.By collectively working together, new ideas and ways of improving the organization can be developed. 8 General From the above three initiatives taken by the new Managing Director, it is evident that the culture-excellence approach has been significant in the transformation of EX. Construction. The transformation includes aspects from the Japanese and Organizational Learning approaches. The new Managing Director puts a lot of emphasis on the empowerment of employees, developing new skills and training. In addition to the above, he also utilizes part of the Japanese Management's Awaken approach I. E. Mailer incremental improvements that are made continuously. This is evidenced through the implementat ion of each initiative at intervals rather than all at once. The transformation of a large organization, such as EX. Construction, is a long- term project as organizational culture and operational changes often take time to change. Another example of how the new Managing Director adopted the culture-excellence approach is through the use of a simultaneous loose-tight attitude. This is where the manager allowed a â€Å"loose† working environment, however the need to achieve the performance clear was clear.This approach allowed for positive culture and behavioral changes to take place without losing focus of the organization's objectives. Based on the above evidence, the transformation of EX. Construction clearly adopted aspects of the culture-excellence approach to effectively achieve its objectives. 9 2 Reasoning for little opposition/resistance from staff The appointment of a new managing director who has a different leadership style ill almost always bring about change with in an organization. Organizational change is not always easily accepted; some reasons for resistance to change are listed below (Yuk, 2013, up. 192): Change is not necessary Change is not feasible Change is not cost effective Change would cause personal losses Change is inconsistent with values Leaders are not trusted Resistance to organizational change is a natural reaction to those who want to protect their self-interests in the organization. However, it is clear from the case study that the employees of EX. Construction showed little resistance to the change implemented by the incoming managing director. The primary reason that change was welcomed was due to the former Managing Director's management style which was not widely accepted in the organization.Employees feared him and it was not acceptable to speak openly and honestly. Employees were aware that this behavior was often counterproductive, and created a negative impression with the former Managing Director. As the newly a ppointed Managing Director had previously worked at the organization, he was aware of certain of the issues and concerns of the employees. The experience gained from irking at other companies, and the reputation he built from his career prior to returning to EX. Construction ensured that the employees had faith in his leadership ability.The new Managing Director's first step in developing relationships with managers and employees was to incorporate key employees into Senior Management Team activities. His actions made it clear that he was willing to retain the current workforce and promote from within the organization. This created a positive environment which encouraged employees to work harder and produce results Employees and managers id not fear loss of employment with the new Managing Director, but rather felt included in the decision making process.The new Managing Director's attitude and actions were clear and concise which addressed the problems within the organization. His actions were collectively moving in the same direction, to achieve a clear goal of improving internal and external relations and improving the organizations performance. He correctly identified problem areas such as relationships, communication and the structure of the organization. An incorrect diagnosis of the problems within an organization may exult in incorrect changes being implemented, which can lead the organization into complete disarray.The new Managing Director identified two crucial activities to be performed in conjunction with each other to enable the transformation of the organization. The two activities identified were: To introduce new practices and techniques to improve service to customers and thus improve the organization's performance. To change the attitudes and behavior of employees By identifying the two activities above, the new Managing Director identified crucial steps to improve its performance. Only through improving services to customers can the overall organization's performance improve.A satisfied customer is likely to return and recommend the organization to others. This is directly linked to the growth of the organization. The new Managing Director is aware that to provide better service to customers, the employees will have to develop and learn new practices and techniques to ensure superior service quality is provided to customers. The implementation of the second activity is critical to the success of the overall goal of improved customer relationships. The employees and managers attitudes and behaviors are to be transformed to ensure the best results are achieved.Employees and managers who were unhappy under the former Managing Director are more willing to adhere to the recommended changes. The willingness to adhere also stems from the approaches presented being feasible and there is no fear for loss of employment. The changes bring new opportunities for employees and managers to develop in their current roles and possibly grow into new roles. The potential positive outcomes as a result of these changes are a contributing factor in the lack of resistance experienced by the Managing Director.